Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an activation marker of lymphocytes induced by antigen specific and non-specific stimulation that is overexpressed soon after the trigger onset in order to limit inflammation [
]. In turn this leads to a certain regulation of the adaptive immune response by inducing controlled death in massively activated lymphocytes [
- Agata Y.
- Kawasaki A.
- Nishimura H.
- Ishida Y.
- Tsubata T.
- Yagita H.
- et al.
Expression of the PD-1 antigen on the surface of stimulated mouse T and B lymphocytes.
Int Immunol. 1996; 8: 765-772
]. Knowledge on the PD-1 in cardiovascular diseases is scarce and its dynamics in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown.
- Grabie N.
- Gotsman I.
- DaCosta R.
- Pang H.
- Stavrakis G.
- Butte M.J.
- et al.
Endothelial programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulates CD8+ T-cell mediated injury in the heart.
Circulation. 2007; 116: 2062-2071
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- Expression of the PD-1 antigen on the surface of stimulated mouse T and B lymphocytes.Int Immunol. 1996; 8: 765-772
- Endothelial programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulates CD8+ T-cell mediated injury in the heart.Circulation. 2007; 116: 2062-2071
- Usefulness of a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment for predicting recovery of left ventricular wall motion in the setting of myocardial stunning.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46: 1747-1752
- Right ventricular involvement in anterior myocardial infarction: a translational approach.Cardiovasc Res. Sep 1 2010; 87: 601-608
- Sterile inflammation: sensing and reacting to damage.Nat Rev Immunol. 2010; 10: 826-837
- Recent insights into the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in immunological tolerance and autoimmunity.Autoimmun Rev. 2013; 12: 1091-1100
Published online: September 27, 2014
Accepted: September 21, 2014
Received: September 11, 2014
© 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.