Research Article| Volume 98, ISSUE 3, P425-430, February 28, 2005

Acute effects of caffeine on blood pressure and wave reflections in healthy subjects: should we consider monitoring central blood pressure?


      Background: Data concerning blood pressure changes, acutely induced by caffeine consumption, are conflicting. Furthermore, limited data exist regarding central hemodynamic response to caffeine ingestion by healthy young subjects. We investigated the acute effect of coffee (80 mg of caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee on peripheral and central hemodynamics, as well as on wave reflections. Subjects: For this purpose, 16 healthy volunteers (eight females and eight males, mean age 29±3.2 years) were investigated. Methods: Repeated measurements were performed at baseline and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after oral administration of each beverage in a double-blind crossover design. Aortic blood pressures, augmentation index (AI) and pressure (AP) and timing of reflected waves were evaluated by using applanation tonometry and pulse wave analysis. Results: Regular coffee increased central systolic (SBP) and diastolic pressure (DBP) from 96.2±9.9 to 101.1±10.1 mmHg, p=0.011 and from 72.6±9.4 to 76.5±9.0 mmHg, p=0.027, respectively, but no change was observed following consumption of decaffeinated coffee. Peripheral systolic blood pressure did not change significantly after the administration of either coffee. Augmentation index increased significantly following regular coffee consumption. The change in AI was significantly higher following regular compared to decaffeinated coffee consumption as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures (p=0.001). Conclusions: These caffeine effects reveal an unfavourable effect on wave reflections and therefore on left ventricular (LV) pulsatile afterload. It also revealed a significant acute effect of caffeine consumption on central hemodynamics which is not observed at peripheral pressures.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to International Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Whitsett T.L.
        • Mannion C.V.
        • Christensen H.D.
        Cardiovascular effects of coffee and caffeine.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1984; 53: 918-922
        • Wilson P.W.
        • Garrison R.J.
        • Kannel W.B.
        • McGee D.L.
        • Castelli W.P.
        Is coffee consumption a contributor to cardiovascular disease? Insights from the Framigham Study.
        Arch. Int. Med. 1989; 149: 1169-1172
        • Nurminen M.L.
        • Niittynen L.
        • Korpela R.
        • Vapaatalo H.
        Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 53: 831-839
        • Salvaggio A.
        • Periti M.
        • Miano L.
        • Zambelli C.
        Association between habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure.
        J. Hypertens. 1990; 8: 585-590
        • Pincomb G.A.
        • Lovallo W.R.
        • Passey R.B.
        • Whitsett T.L.
        • Silverstein S.M.
        • Wilson M.F.
        Effects of caffeine on vascular resistance, cardiac output and myocardial contractility in young men.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1985; 56: 119-122
        • Robertson D.
        • Wade D.
        • Carr R.H.
        • Workman R.J.
        • Oates J.A.
        Humoral and hemodynamic effects of chronic caffeine in man.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1981; 67: 1111-1117
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Hirata K.
        • O'Rourke M.
        Pressure-altering agents affect central aortic pressure more than is apparent from upper limp measurements in hypertensive patients. The role of arterial wave reflections.
        Hypertension. 2001; 38: 1456-1460
        • Safar M.E.
        • Blacher J.
        • Pannier B.
        • et al.
        Central pressure and mortality in end-stage renal disease.
        Hypertension. 2002; 39: 735-738
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Hirata K.
        • Stefanadis C.
        • Toutouzas P.
        • O'Rourke M.
        Caffeine increases aortic stiffness in hypertensive patients.
        Am. J. Hypertens. 2003; 16: 63-66
        • O'Rourke M.F.
        Arterial mechanics and wave reflection with antihypertensive therapy.
        J. Hypertens. 1992; 10: S43-S49
        • Asmar R.
        • Rudnichi A.
        • Blacher J.
        • London G.M.
        • Safar M.E.
        Pulse pressure and aortic pulse wave are markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive populations.
        Am. J. Hypertens. 2001; 2: 91-97
        • Gilbert R.M.
        Caffeine consumption.
        in: Spiller G.A. The methylxanthine beverages and foods: chemistry, consumption, and health effects. Alan R. Liss, New York1984: 185
        • Karamanoglu M.
        • O'Rourke M.K.
        • Avolio A.P.
        • Kelly R.P.
        An analysis of the relationship between central aortic and peripheral upper limb pressure waves in man.
        Eur. Heart J. 1993; 14: 160-167
        • Chen C.H.
        • Nevo E.
        • Fetics B.
        • et al.
        Estimation of central aortic pressure waveform by mathematical transformation of radial tonometry pressure: validation of generalized transfer function.
        Circulation. 1997; 95: 1827-1836
        • O'Rourke M.
        • Kelly R.
        Wave reflection in the systemic circulation and its implications in ventricular function.
        J. Hypertens. 1993; 11: 327-337
        • Murgo J.
        • Westerhof N.
        • Giolma J.P.
        • Altobelli S.
        Aortic impedance in normal man: relationship to pressure waveforms.
        Circulation. 1980; 62: 105-116
        • Bertrand C.A.
        • Pomper I.
        • Hillman G.
        • et al.
        No relation between coffee and blood pressure.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1987; 299: 315-316
        • Mahmud A.
        • Feely J.
        Acute effect on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform.
        Hypertension. 2001; 38: 227-231
        • Hartley T.R.
        • Sung B.H.
        • Pincomb G.A.
        • Whitsett T.L.
        • Wilson M.F.
        • Lovallo W.R.
        Hypertension risk status and effect of caffeine on blood pressure.
        Hypertension. 2000; 36: 137-141
        • Izzo J.L.
        • Ghosal A.
        • Kwong T.
        • Freeman R.B.
        • Jaenike J.R.
        Age and prior caffeine use after the cardiovascular and andrenome dullay response to oral caffeine.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1983; 52: 769-773
        • Greenberg W.
        • Shapiro D.
        The effects of caffeine and stress on blood pressure in individuals with and without a family history of hypertension.
        Psychophysiology. 1984; 24: 151-156
        • Casiglia E.
        • Bongiovi S.
        • Paleari C.D.
        • et al.
        Haemodynamic effects of coffee and caffeine in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled clinical study.
        J. Intern. Med. 1991; 229: 501-504
        • Smits P.
        • Thien T.
        • Laar A.
        Circulatory effects of coffee in relation to the pharmacokinetics of caffeine.
        Am. J. Cardiol. 1985; 56: 958-963
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Hirata K.
        • O'Rourke M.F.
        Effect of caffeine on aortic elastic properties and wave reflection.
        J. Hypertens. 2003; 21: 563-570
        • Boutouyrie P.
        • Bussy C.
        • Lacolley P.
        • Girerd X.
        • Laloux B.
        • Laurent S.
        Association between local pulse pressure, mean blood pressure and large artery remodeling.
        Circulation. 1999; 100: 1387-1393
        • Stefanadis Ch.
        • Dernellis J.
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • et al.
        Aortic function in arterial hypertension determined by pressure–diameter relation: effects of Dilitiazem.
        Circulation. 1997; 96: 1853-1858
        • Lekakis J.P.
        • Zakopoulos N.A.
        • Protogerou A.D.
        • et al.
        Cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension: relation to 24-hour blood pressure profile and arterial stiffness.
        Int. J. Cardiol. 2004; (In press)
        • Wilkinson I.
        • MacCallum H.
        • Flint L.
        • Cockroft J.
        • Newby D.
        • Webb D.
        The influence of heart rate on augmentation index and central arterial pressure in humans.
        J. Physiol. 2000; 525: 263-270
        • Lehman E.D.
        Clinical value of aortic pulse wave velocity measurement.
        Lancet. 1999; 354: 528-529
        • Laurent S.
        • Boutouyrie P.
        • Asmar R.
        • et al.
        Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients.
        Hypertension. 2001; 37: 1236-1241
        • London G.M.
        • Blacher J.
        • Pannier B.
        • Guerin A.P.
        • Marchais S.J.
        • Safar M.E.
        Arterial wave reflections and survival in end-stage renal failure.
        Hypertension. 2001; 38: 434-438