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Chocolate intake reduces risk of cardiovascular disease: Evidence from 10 observational studies

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Contributed equally to this work.
    Zhizhong Zhang
    Footnotes
    1 Contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Contributed equally to this work.
    Gelin Xu
    Footnotes
    1 Contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Xinfeng Liu
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, 305# East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province, China. Tel.: +86 25 84801861; fax: +86 25 84664563.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jiangsu Province, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Contributed equally to this work.
Published:January 07, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.12.036
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide [
      • Lloyd-Jones D.
      • Adams R.J.
      • Brown T.M.
      • et al.
      Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
      ,
      • Yusuf S.
      • Reddy S.
      • Ounpuu S.
      • Anand S.
      Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization.
      ]. Chocolate may decrease the risk of CVD through various mechanisms, such as lowering blood pressure [
      • Desch S.
      • Schmidt J.
      • Kobler D.
      • et al.
      Effect of cocoa products on blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis.
      ], improving endothelial function [
      • Faridi Z.
      • Njike V.Y.
      • Dutta S.
      • Ali A.
      • Katz D.L.
      Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.
      ,
      • Heiss C.
      • Kleinbongard P.
      • Dejam A.
      • et al.
      Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers.
      ], and improving insulin sensitivity [
      • Grassi D.
      • Lippi C.
      • Necozione S.
      • Desideri G.
      • Ferri C.
      Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons.
      ].

      Keywords

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