Heart rate variability (HRV) is a suitable parameter which is representative of the type of autonomic control [
]. Blood pressure variability (BPV) seems to be a reliable parameter indicating the balance of neurohumoral and endocrinic regulation, which is closely related to the risk of cardiovascular complications [
- Schäfer A.
- Vagedes J.
How accurate is pulse rate variability as an estimate of heart rate variability?.
Int J Cardiol. 2013; 166: 15-29
- Mancia G.
- Guido G.
Mechanisms and clinical implications of blood pressure variability.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000; 35: S15-S19
- Webb A.J.
- Fischer U.
- Mehta Z.
- Rothwell P.M.
Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lancet. 2010; 375: 906-915
4]. Several studies have shown that breathing rate plays a pivotal role in the regulation of HRV and BPV [
- Rothwell P.M.
- Howard S.C.
- Dolan E.
- et al.
Prognostic significance of visit-to-visit variability, maximum systolic blood pressure, and episodic hypertension.
Lancet. 2010; 375: 895-905
- Larsen P.D.
- Tzeng Y.C.
- Sin P.Y.
- Galletly D.C.
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in conscious humans during spontaneous respiration.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010; 174: 111-118
- DeBeck L.D.
- Petersen S.R.
- Jones K.E.
- Stickland M.K.
Heart rate variability and muscle sympathetic nerve activity response to acute stress: the effect of breathing.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 299: R80-R91
7]. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of slow breathing rate on HRV and BPV in healthy subjects.
- Mancia G.
Short- and long-term blood pressure variability: present and future.
Hypertension. 2012; 60: 512-517
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- How accurate is pulse rate variability as an estimate of heart rate variability?.Int J Cardiol. 2013; 166: 15-29
- Mechanisms and clinical implications of blood pressure variability.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000; 35: S15-S19
- Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet. 2010; 375: 906-915
- Prognostic significance of visit-to-visit variability, maximum systolic blood pressure, and episodic hypertension.Lancet. 2010; 375: 895-905
- Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in conscious humans during spontaneous respiration.Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010; 174: 111-118
- Heart rate variability and muscle sympathetic nerve activity response to acute stress: the effect of breathing.Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 299: R80-R91
- Short- and long-term blood pressure variability: present and future.Hypertension. 2012; 60: 512-517
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- Slow breathing improves arterial baroreflex sensitivity and decreases blood pressure in essential hypertension.Hypertension. 2005; 46: 714-718
Published online: September 24, 2013
Accepted: August 29, 2013
Received: August 9, 2013
© 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.