- •Vegetarian diet is potentially associated with reduced ischaemic heart disease.
- •The benefits of a vegetarian diet are most apparent among Seventh-Day Adventist.
- •Reductions in all-cause mortality were not replicated in the non-Adventist studies.
- •Evidence supporting a vegetarian diet is driven by Seventh-Day Adventists studies.
- •The effect of vegetarian diet in other non-Adventist cohorts remains unproven.
- Cardiovascular diseases. Factsheet N°317.(Updated March 2013. Available at)
- AHA Scientific Statements Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension.Hypertension. 2006; 47: 296-308
- Diet and obesity.Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004; 20: 119-124
- Diet and diabetes. 1993.Diabetes Metab Rev. 1993; 9: 93-108
- Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.Proc Nutr Soc. 2006; 65: 35-41
- Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis.JAMA Intern Med. 2014; 174: 577-587
- Comparison of plasma triacylglycerol levels in vegetarians and omnivores: a meta-analysis.Nutrition. 2013; 29: 426-430
- Type of vegetarian diet, body composition and prevalence of type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2009; 32: 791-796
- Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores: dietary composition, prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose.PLoS One. 2014; 9: e88547
- Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013; 23: 292-299
- Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies.Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70: 516S-524S
- Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review.Ann Nutr Metab. 2012; 60: 233-240
- Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.JAMA Intern Med. 2013; 173: 1230-1238
- Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study.Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 597-603
- The appropriateness of asymmetry tests for publication bias in meta-analysis: a large survey.CMAJ. 2007; 176: 1091-1096
- When odds ratios mislead?.BMJ. 1998; 316: 989-991
- Measuring inconsistency in meta-analysis.BMJ. 2003; 327: 557-560
- Mortality among Japanese Zen priests.J Epidemiol Community Health. 1984; 38: 161-166
- Chronic disease among Seven-day Adventist, a low-risk group.Cancer. 1989; 64: 570-581
- Lifestyle determinants and mortality in German vegetarians and health-conscious persons: results of a 21-year follow-up.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14: 963-968
- Prevalence of obesity is low in people who do not eat meat.BMJ. 1996; 313: 816-817
- Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters.BMJ. 1994; 308: 1667-1671
- Mortality pattern and life expectancy of Seventh-Day Adventists in the Netherlands.Int J Epidemiol. 1983; 12: 455-459
- A cohort study found that earlier and longer Seventh-day Adventist church membership was associated with reduced male mortality.J Clin Epidemiol. 2005; 58: 83-91
- Lifestyle and reduced mortality among active California Mormons, 1980–2004.Prev Med. 2008; 26: 133-136
- The healthy Seventh-day Adventist Lifestyle: what is the Norwegian experience?.Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 1124S-1129S
- Mortality pattern of German vegetarians after 11 years of follow-up.Epidemiology. 1992; 3: 395-401
- Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179: 282-289
- Red meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.Stroke. 2012; 43: 2556-2560
- Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Circulation. 2010; 121: 2271-2283
- Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.Hypertension. 2006; 47: 296-308
- Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.Lancet. 1990; 336: 129-133
- Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.JAMA. 1998; 280: 2001-2007