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Prognostic impact of renal and hepatic dysfunction based on the MELD-XI score in patients with acute heart failure

      The multiple organ system contributes to defining the prognosis of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). “Cardio-renal interaction” is a well-known entity [
      • Ronco C.
      • McCullough P.
      • Anker S.D.
      • et al.
      Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the acute dialysis quality initiative.
      ], and clinical studies during the past decade have considered baseline renal dysfunction as one of the most important prognostic factors in hospitalized AHF patients [
      • Abraham W.T.
      • Fonarow G.C.
      • Albert N.M.
      • et al.
      Predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for heart failure: insights from the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF).
      ]. In addition, “cardio-hepatic interactions” have been reported, and studies have demonstrated that abnormal results on liver function tests in patients with heart failure were independently related to adverse outcomes and increased risk of mortality [
      • Allen L.A.
      • Felker G.M.
      • Pocock S.
      • et al.
      Liver function abnormalities and outcome in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity (CHARM) program.
      ,
      • Nikolaou M.
      • Parissis J.
      • Yilmaz M.B.
      • et al.
      Liver function abnormalities, clinical profile, and outcome in acute decompensated heart failure.
      ].

      Abbreviations:

      AHF (acute heart failure), MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease), INR (international normalized ratio), MELD-XI score (MELD score excluding the INR), WET-HF (West Tokyo Heart Failure)

      Keywords

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