Consumption of fruit and vegetable and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  • Yong Gan
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Xinyue Tong
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Liqing Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Management, School of Economics and Management, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
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  • Shiyi Cao
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Xiaoxv Yin
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Chao Gao
    Affiliations
    National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
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  • Chulani Herath
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Wenzhen Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Zhe Jin
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
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  • Yawen Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Zuxun Lu
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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Published:January 26, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.01.077

      Abstract

      Background

      Observational studies suggest that an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship of fruit and vegetable consumption with CHD risk and quality the dose–response relationship between them.

      Methods

      Relevant prospective studies were identified by a search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases to July 2014. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

      Results

      Twenty-three studies involving 937,665 participants and 18,047 patients with CHD were included. Compared with the lowest consumption levels of total fruit and vegetable, fruit and vegetable, the RR of CHD was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79–0.90), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.81–0.93), respectively. The dose–response analysis indicated that, the RR of CHD was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85–0.91) per 477 g/day of total fruit and vegetable consumption, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75–0.93) per 300 g/day of fruit intake and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73–0.92) per 400 g/day of vegetable consumption. A nonlinear association of CHD risk with fruit or vegetable consumption separately was found (P for nonlinearity <0.001). In the subgroup analysis of location, a significant inverse association was observed in Western populations, but not in Asian populations.

      Conclusions

      This meta-analysis indicates that total fruit and vegetable, fruit and vegetable consumption, are significantly associated with a lower risk of CHD. The significant inverse association was found in Western populations, but not in Asian populations, which warrants further research.

      Keywords

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