The ratio a + b/a = a/b = 1.618 was defined the ‘golden section’ in the 19th century but was definitely known to Euclid as mean and extreme ratio [
- Pasipoularides A.
Historical continuity in the methodology of modern medical science: Leonardo leads the way.
Int. J. Cardiol. 2014; 171: 103-115
2]. During the 13th century, the genial mathematician Leonardo Bonacci, better known as Fibonacci, described in the Liber Abaci his famous sequence, in which the ratio of every consecutive number approximates the value of 1.618 [
- Livio M.
The Golden Ratio: The Story of phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number.
Broadway Books, 2002
]. From this sequence it is possible to generate a spiral that is inscribed in a rectangle made of squares with the sides obtained from the same sequence (Fig. 1a ). The Fibonacci spiral with its sequence is a structure that is worldwide present: sunflowers, pinecones, shells, stars, phyllotaxis of leaves and geometric figures such as the regular hexagon and pentagon that can be cut into squares and smaller rectangles and triangles with the same aspect ratio [
- Ashrafian H.
- Athanasiou T.
Fibonacci series and coronary anatomy.
Heart Lung Circ. 2011; 20: 483-484
- Weib G.
J. Geom. Graph. 2002; 6: 167-182
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- Historical continuity in the methodology of modern medical science: Leonardo leads the way.Int. J. Cardiol. 2014; 171: 103-115
- The Golden Ratio: The Story of phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number.Broadway Books, 2002
- Fibonacci series and coronary anatomy.Heart Lung Circ. 2011; 20: 483-484
- Golden hexagons.J. Geom. Graph. 2002; 6: 167-182
Published online: December 14, 2015
Accepted: December 12, 2015
Received: November 23, 2015
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.