Physical activity, sedentary time, TV viewing, physical fitness and cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: The HELENA study

  • Alan R. Barker
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Children's Health and Exercise Research Centre, Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, St Luke's Campus, Exeter, EX1 2LU, UK.
    Affiliations
    Children's Health and Exercise Research Centre, Sport and Health Sciences, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
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  • Luis Gracia-Marco
    Affiliations
    PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health Through Physical Activity” Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

    Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
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  • Jonatan R. Ruiz
    Affiliations
    PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health Through Physical Activity” Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • Manuel J. Castillo
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Spain
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  • Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza
    Affiliations
    ImFine Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences—INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
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  • Marcela González-Gross
    Affiliations
    ImFine Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences—INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Nutrición y la Obesidad (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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  • Anthony Kafatos
    Affiliations
    School of Medicine, University of Crete, Greece
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  • Odysseas Androutsos
    Affiliations
    School of Health Science and Education, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece
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  • Angela Polito
    Affiliations
    Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy
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  • Dénes Molnar
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pecs, Hungary
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  • Kurt Widhalm
    Affiliations
    Division of Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
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  • Luis A. Moreno
    Affiliations
    Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Nutrición y la Obesidad (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

    Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS Aragón), Spain
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Published:November 25, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.11.080

      Abstract

      Background

      To examine the independent associations between physical activity (PA) intensities, sedentary time (ST), TV viewing, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth.

      Methods

      A cross-sectional study on 534 European adolescents (252 males, 282 females, 12.5–17.5 years). Minutes per day of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA and total ST were measured using accelerometers. TV viewing time was measured using a questionnaire. CRF and MF were measured using the 20 m shuttle run test and a hand dynamometer respectively. CVD outcomes included markers of body composition (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), WC/height (Ht) and sum of skinfolds (SumSF)), blood pressure, blood lipids and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Clustered CVD risk was calculated using SumSF, HOMA-IR, blood lipids and blood pressure.

      Results

      LPA had a significant positive independent relationship with all body composition outcomes (P< 0.001) and clustered CVD risk (P= 0.046). VPA was negatively related to SumSF (P< 0.001), BMI (P= 0.018), WC/Ht (P= 0.013) and clustered CVD risk (P= 0.001), but was non-significant for all when other exposures were considered (P> 0.10). MPA had a negative independent relationship with only WC (P= 0.029) and ST was not significantly related to CVD risk (P> 0.16). TV viewing had a significant positive independent relationship with HOMA-IR (P< 0.001) and clustered CVD risk (P= 0.019). CRF (all P< 0.002) and MF (all P< 0.009) had a negative independent relationship with body composition outcomes and clustered CVD risk.

      Conclusions

      Public health guidelines should prioritize on increasing levels of CRF, MF and VPA, and reducing TV viewing time to lower CVD risk in youth.

      Keywords

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