To examine the independent associations between physical activity (PA) intensities, sedentary time (ST), TV viewing, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth.
A cross-sectional study on 534 European adolescents (252 males, 282 females, 12.5–17.5 years). Minutes per day of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA and total ST were measured using accelerometers. TV viewing time was measured using a questionnaire. CRF and MF were measured using the 20 m shuttle run test and a hand dynamometer respectively. CVD outcomes included markers of body composition (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), WC/height (Ht) and sum of skinfolds (SumSF)), blood pressure, blood lipids and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Clustered CVD risk was calculated using SumSF, HOMA-IR, blood lipids and blood pressure.
LPA had a significant positive independent relationship with all body composition outcomes (P < 0.001) and clustered CVD risk (P = 0.046). VPA was negatively related to SumSF (P < 0.001), BMI (P = 0.018), WC/Ht (P = 0.013) and clustered CVD risk (P = 0.001), but was non-significant for all when other exposures were considered (P > 0.10). MPA had a negative independent relationship with only WC (P = 0.029) and ST was not significantly related to CVD risk (P > 0.16). TV viewing had a significant positive independent relationship with HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) and clustered CVD risk (P = 0.019). CRF (all P < 0.002) and MF (all P < 0.009) had a negative independent relationship with body composition outcomes and clustered CVD risk.
Public health guidelines should prioritize on increasing levels of CRF, MF and VPA, and reducing TV viewing time to lower CVD risk in youth.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to International Journal of Cardiology
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.WHO Press, Switzerland2010
- Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth.Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2010; 7: 40
- Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.JAMA. 2012; 307: 704-712
- Combined associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour with cardiometabolic risk factors in children.Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2013; 38: 477-483
- Vigorous physical activity and longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in youth.Int. J. Obes. 2014; 38 (2005): 16-21
- Physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic risk in youth.Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2012; 166: 1022-1029
- Targeting sedentary time or moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity: independent relations with adiposity in a population-based sample of 10-y-old British children.Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009; 90: 1185-1192
- Physical activity guidelines and cardiovascular risk in children: a cross sectional analysis to determine whether 60 minutes is enough.BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 67
- High aerobic fitness in late adolescence is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction later in life: a nationwide cohort study in men.Eur. Heart J. 2014; (2014-11-21 00:00:00): 3133-3140
- Childhood fitness reduces the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity.Int. J. Obes. 2016; 40: 1134-1140
- Aerobic fitness and its relationship to sport, exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth.Br. J. Sports Med. 2011; 45: 849-858
- Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study.Pediatr. Diabetes. 2011; 12: 704-712
- Cardiorespiratory fitness and ideal cardiovascular health in European adolescents.Heart. 2015; 101: 766-773
- Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health.Int. J. Obes. 2008; 32 (2005): 1-11
- Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants.BMJ. 2012; 345https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e7279
- Design and implementation of the healthy lifestyle in Europe by nutrition in adolescence cross-sectional study.Int. J. Obes. 2008; 32: S4-S11
- Quality assurance of ethical issues and regulatory aspects relating to good clinical practices in the HELENA cross-sectional study.Int. J. Obes. 2008; 32: S12-8
- Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in a multicenter study in adolescents.Int. J. Obes. 2008; 32 (2005): S58-65
- Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey.BMJ. 2000; 320: 1240-1243
- Role of the waist/height ratio in the cardiometabolic risk assessment of children classified by body mass index.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2013; 62: 742-751
- Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.Arch. Dis. Child. 1976; 51: 170-179
- Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Family Affluence Scale.Soc. Sci. Med. 2008; 66: 1429-1436
- Socioeconomic status and bone mass in Spanish adolescents. The HELENA study.J. Adolesc. Health. 2012; 50: 484-490
- Validation of two automatic devices for self-measurement of blood pressure according to the international protocol of the European Society of Hypertension: the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) and the Omron R7 (HEM 637-IT).Blood Press. Monit. 2006; 11: 165-171
- Sampling and processing of fresh blood samples within a European multicenter nutritional study: evaluation of biomarker stability during transport and storage.Int. J. Obes. 2008; 32: S66-75
- Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as screening tool for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents.Acta Diabetol. 2016; 53: 493-498
- Lipoprotein ratios: physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention.Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 2009; 5: 757-765
- Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.Diabetologia. 1985; 28: 412-419
- Association of objectively assessed physical activity with total and central body fat in Spanish adolescents; the HELENA study.Int. J. Obes. 2009; 33: 1126-1135
- Reliability and validity of a screen time-based sedentary behaviour questionnaire for adolescents: the HELENA study.Eur. J. Pub. Health. 2012; 22: 373-377
- Criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in youth: a systematic review.Br. J. Sports Med. 2010; 44: 934-943
- The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness.J. Sports Sci. 1988; 6: 93-101
- Hand span influences optimal grip span in male and female teenagers.J. Hand. Surg. [Am.]. 2006; 31: 1367-1372
- Elbow position affects handgrip strength in adolescents: validity and reliability of Jamar, DynEx, and TKK dynamometers.J. Strength Cond. Res. 2010; 24: 272-277
- Body composition indices and single and clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: providing clinical-based cut-points.Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2016; 58: 555-564
- Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (the European Youth Heart Study).Lancet. 2006; 368: 299-304
- Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Youth Heart Study.Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 84: 299-303
- Exercise intensity and postprandial health outcomes in adolescents.Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2015; 115: 927-936
- Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European Youth Heart Study.Diabetologia. 2007; 50: 1832-1840
- Food consumption and screen-based sedentary behaviors in European adolescents: the HELENA study.Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2012; 166: 1010-1020
- Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study.Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 2007; 14: 575-581
- The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sports Med. 2014; 44 (Auckland, NZ): 1209-1223
Published online: November 25, 2017
Accepted: November 22, 2017
Received in revised form: October 31, 2017
Received: June 12, 2017
☆All authors take responsibility for all aspects of the reliability and freedom from bias of the data presented and their discussed interpretation.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.