- •In a large, population-based analysis of MI patients, 5.8% present with MINOCA.
- •One-year death/re-MI rate was 5.3% in MINOCA and 8.9% in patients with OCD.
- •770 (36.8%) of MINOCA patients had no angiographic evidence of CAD.
- •One-year death/re-MI rate among these patients was still 3.9%.
- •Despite the benign anatomic findings, clinical outcomes in MINOCA are still of concern.
- 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the management of patients with non-st-elevation acute coronary syndromes: Executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines.Circulation. 2014; 130: 2354-2394
- 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation.Eur. Heart J. 2016; 37: 267-315
- 2017 ESC guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation.Eur. Heart J. 2017; : 119-177
- Overview of the Alberta provincial project for outcome assessment in coronary heart disease. On behalf of the APPROACH investigators.Can. J. Cardiol. 2000; 16: 1225-1230
- Validation of three myocardial jeopardy scores in a population-based cardiac catheterization cohort.Am. Heart J. 2001; 142: 254-261
- Coding algorithms for defining comorbidities in ICD-9-CM and ICD-10 administrative data.Med. Care. 2005; 43: 1130-1139
- A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.J. Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 373-383
- Myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries.Chest. 1995; 107: 36-40
- Diagnostic synergy of non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance and invasive endomyocardial biopsy in troponin-positive patients without coronary artery disease.Eur. Heart J. 2009; 30: 2869-2879
- ESC working group position paper on myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries.Eur. Heart J. 2017; 38: 143-153
- Systematic review of patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction and nonobstructive coronary arteries.Circulation. 2015; 131: 861-870
- Spontaneous reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: comparison of angiographic and electrocardiographic assessments.Am. Heart J. 2008; 156: 248-255
- Mechanisms of myocardial infarction in women without angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease.Circulation. 2011; 124: 1414-1425
- Characteristics of plaque disruption by intravascular ultrasound in women presenting with myocardial infarction without obstructive coronary artery disease.Am. Heart J. 2014; 167: 715-722
- Differential accumulation of proteoglycans and hyaluronan in culprit lesions: insights into plaque erosion.Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2002; 22: 1642-1648
- High levels of systemic myeloperoxidase are associated with coronary plaque erosion in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a clinicopathological study.Circulation. 2010; 122: 2505-2513
- 3-year follow-up of patients with coronary artery spasm as cause of acute coronary syndrome: the CASPAR (coronary artery spasm in patients with acute coronary syndrome) study follow-up.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2011; 57: 147-152
- Patients with acute myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary arteries: safety and prognostic relevance of invasive coronary provocative tests.Eur. Heart J. 2017; 39: 91-98
- Angina pectoris caused by coronary microvascular spasm.Lancet. 1998; 351: 1165-1169
- Primary coronary microvascular dysfunction: clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management.Circulation. 2010; 121: 2317-2325
- Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a western Denmark heart registry study.Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 2009; 74: 710-717
- Prevalence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in patients with acute coronary syndrome.Eur. Hear. J. Acute Cardiovasc. Care. 2016; 5: 263-270
- Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2017; 70: 1148-1158
- TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy a short review.Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 2013; 9: 191-196
- Comorbidities frequency in takotsubo syndrome: an international collaborative systematic review including 1109 patients.Am. J. Med. 2015; 128: 654.e11-654.e19
- Myocarditis or “true” infarction by cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with a clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction without obstructive coronary disease: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.Atherosclerosis. 2015; 241: 87-91
- Sex differences in mortality following acute coronary syndromes.JAMA. 2009; 302: 874-882
- Impact of ethnicity and gender differences on angiographic coronary artery disease prevalence and in-hospital mortality in the American College of Cardiology-National Cardiovascular Data Registry.Circulation. 2008; 117: 1787-1801
- Emergence of nonobstructive coronary artery disease: a woman's problem and need for change in definition on angiography.J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2015; 66: 1918-1933
- Spontaneous coronary artery dissection novel diagnostic insights from large series of patients.Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 2014; 7: 638-641
- Acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis: mechanisms and management.Eur. Heart J. 2015; 36: 475-481
- Outcomes among non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes patients with no angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease: observations from 37,101 patients.Eur. Hear. J. Acute Cardiovasc. Care. 2014; 3: 37-45
- Medical therapy for secondary prevention and long-term outcome in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary artery disease.Circulation. 2017; 135: 1481-1489
☆Competing interests: No competing interests declared.