Mitral regurgitation (MR) remains the most common valvular heart disease encountered in clinical practice. Clinically significant MR results from a diverse range of pathology, categorized into primary (degenerative) MR resulting from abnormalities of the mitral valve leaflets or secondary (functional) MR resulting from abnormalities of the left ventricle (LV) and/or mitral annulus. Patients with primary MR may have leaflet prolapse with or without a flail segment and can also display concomitant elements of secondary MR. Pure secondary MR has traditionally been attributed to LV enlargement and dysfunction that subsequently results in leaflet tenting, mitral annular enlargement and leaflet malcoaptation [
]. The mitral annulus, part of the fibrous cardiac skeleton, connects the left atrium (LA) with the LV and is intimately involved in pathologic conditions that may affect either of these chambers.
- Nishimura R.A.
- Vahanian A.
- Eleid M.F.
- Mack M.J.
Mitral valve disease—current management and future challenges.
Lancet (Lond. Engl.). 2016; 387: 1324-1334
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- Mitral valve disease—current management and future challenges.Lancet (Lond. Engl.). 2016; 387: 1324-1334
- Predictors of mitral annulus enlargement? A real-time three-dimensional transesophageal study.Int. J. Cardiol. 2018; 270: 349-352
Published online: July 09, 2018
Accepted: July 6, 2018
Received: June 29, 2018
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.