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Sodium nitroprusside in acute heart failure: A multicenter historic cohort study

      Highlights

      • SNP is effective in achieving rapid decongestion and hemodynamic improvement in AHF
      • NT-proBNP reduction ≥25% within the first 48 hours was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay and lower risk of re-hospitalization for HF.
      • Our data suggest a greater efficacy of SNP in patients with more dilated LV
      • Safety and efficacy of SNP were observed also in mildly hypotensive patients.
      • Improvement of CO and organ perfusion is particularly appealing in low-output AHF patients with marginal SBP.

      Abstract

      Aims

      Despite evidence of hemodynamic benefit of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment for acute heart failure (AHF), there are limited data about its efficacy and safety. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of SNP treatment, to explore the impact of N-terminal pro-B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) reduction on clinical endpoints and to identify possible predictors of clinical response.

      Methods and results

      Multicenter retrospective cohort study of 200 patients consecutively admitted for AHF in 2 Italian Centers. Primary endpoint was the reduction of NT-proBNP levels ≥25% from baseline values within 48 h from the onset of SNP infusion. Secondary and safety endpoints included all-cause mortality, rehospitalization for HF at 1, 3 and 6 months, length of hospital stay (LOS) and severe hypotension. 131 (66%) patients experienced a NT-proBNP reduction ≥25% within 48 h from treatment onset, irrespective of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP). Left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) was the only independent predictor of treatment efficacy. Patients who achieved the primary endpoint (i.e., ‘responders’) had lower LOS (median 15 [IQR:10–27] vs 19 [IQR:12–35] days, p-value = 0.033) and a lower incidence of all-cause mortality and rehospitalization for HF at 1 and 3 months compared to “non responders” (p-value <0.050). Severe hypotension was observed in 10 (5%) patients, without any adverse clinical consequence.

      Conclusion

      SNP is a safe and effective treatment of AHF, particularly in patients with dilated left ventricle. Reduced NT-proBNP levels in response to SNP is associated to shorter LOS and lower risk of 1- and 3-month re-hospitalizations for HF.
      Clinical trial registration. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT05027360

      Keywords

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