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A global view on the incidence and mortality of infective endocarditis

Published:November 03, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.10.165
      Infective endocarditis (IE) consists of an infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardium, or an implanted cardiac device. It is usually caused by bacteria (typically streptococcus or staphylococcus) or more rarely fungi. IE can cause several signs and symptoms, including fever, new or changed heart murmurs, tachycardia, anemia, embolic phenomena, petechiae, and endocardial vegetations. The latter can lead to valve obstruction or insufficiency, myocardial abscess, mycotic aneurysm, or embolic complications.[
      • Cahill T.J.
      • Prendergast B.D.
      Infective endocarditis.
      ,
      • Bergadà-Pijuan J.
      • Frank M.
      • Boroumand S.
      • Hovaguimian F.
      • Mestres C.A.
      • Bauernschmitt R.
      • Carrel T.
      • Stadlinger B.
      • Ruschitzka F.
      • Zinkernagel A.S.
      • Kouyos R.D.
      • Hasse B.
      Antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis: a systematic review.
      ] The diagnosis is not always straightforward.

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