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Acute coronary syndrome without standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (SMuRF): More questions than answers

Published:November 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.11.005
      Standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (SMuRFs) such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and smoking play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Addressing these potentially modifiable SMuRFs thus represents a pillar of primary and secondary prevention in contemporary cardiovascular medicine [
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      • Mach F.
      • Smulders Y.M.
      • Carballo D.
      • Koskinas K.C.
      • Back M.
      • et al.
      2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.
      ,
      • Reinstadler S.J.
      • Stiermaier T.
      • Eitel C.
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      • de Waha S.
      • Fuernau G.
      • et al.
      Relationship between diabetes and ischaemic injury among patients with revascularized ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
      ,
      • Reindl M.
      • Reinstadler S.J.
      • Feistritzer H.J.
      • Theurl M.
      • Basic D.
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      Relation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with microvascular injury and clinical outcome in revascularized ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
      ,
      • Reinstadler S.J.
      • Reindl M.
      • Tiller C.
      • Holzknecht M.
      • Klug G.
      • Metzler B.
      Obesity paradox in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: is it all about infarct size?.
      ].
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