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Multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection: Clinical features, angiographic findings, management, and outcomes

Published:November 09, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.11.011

      Highlights

      • MV SCAD patients showed a different clinical and angiographic profile when compared with SV SCAD patients.
      • There were no significant differences in combined clinical events, in-hospital MAE and follow up MACCE, between groups.
      • Peripartum status was more frequent among patients with MV SCAD.
      • MV SCAD patients presented a higher risk of stroke, both during admission and at long-term follow up.

      Abstract

      Background

      Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Multivessel (MV) SCAD is a challenging clinical presentation that might be associated to a worse prognosis compared with patients with single-vessel (SV) involvement.

      Methods

      The Spanish multicentre nationwide prospective SCAD registry included 389 consecutive patients. Patients were classified, according to the number of affected vessels, in SV or MV SCAD. Major adverse events (MAE) were analyzed during hospital stay and major cardiac or cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE) at long-term clinical follow-up.

      Results

      A total of 41 patients (10.5%) presented MV SCAD. These patients had more frequently a previous history of hypothyroidism (22% vs 11%, p = 0.04) and anxiety disorder (32% vs 16%, p = 0.01). MV SCAD patients presented more often as non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (73% vs 52%, p = 0.01) and showed less frequently type 1 angiographic lesions (12% vs 21%, p = 0.04). An impaired initial Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow 0–1 was less frequent (14% vs 29%, p < 0.01) in MV SCAD. In both groups, most patients were treated conservatively (71% vs 79%, p = NS). No differences were found regarding in-hospital MAE or MACCE at late follow-up (median 29 ± 11 months). However, the rate of stroke was higher in MV SCAD patients, both in-hospital (2.4% vs 0%, p < 0.01) and at follow-up (5.1% vs 0.6%, p = 0.01).

      Conclusions

      Patients with MV SCAD have some distinctive clinical and angiographic features. Although composite clinical outcomes, in-hospital and at long-term follow-up, were similar to those seen in patients with SV SCAD, stroke rate was significantly higher in patients with MV SCAD.

      Keywords

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