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Entropy of left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement and its prognostic value in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy a new CMR assessment method

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors.
    Xiaoying Zhao
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Dianmiandadao No. 374, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors.
    Fuwei Jin
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Dianmiandadao No. 374, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jin Wang
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, Yanan Hospital of Kunming City, Renmin Dong Lu No. 245, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China
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  • Xinxiang Zhao
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Dianmiandadao No. 374, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Lujing Wang
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Dianmiandadao No. 374, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China
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  • Hua Wei
    Affiliations
    Department of Information, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University,Dianmiandadao No. 374, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors.
Published:November 13, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.11.017

      Highlights

      • This research analyse late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) entropy, a novel metric generated from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and can menifest tissue heterogeneity.
      • The variability and extent of LGE pictures can be reflected by LGE entropy, which is a reliable, usable, and repeatable metric for risk classification in HCM.
      • According to the results, LGE entropy is correlated with LGE mass%, indicating that it is a good indicator of LGE extent. The probability of heterogeneous distribution of fibrosis would grow as cardiac fibrosis progressed, increasing entropy.
      • This research proved that entropy can be utilized for risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). And it is a prognostic indicator of endpoint events that is independent of other risk indicators.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      As a novel metric, entropy generated from late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can be utilized to assess tissue heterogeneity. However, it is unknown if it can be utilized for risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In addition, it is unknown if LGE entropy correlates with LGE mass%, which is commonly utilized for fibrosis assessment. This research was done to investigate these issues.

      Materials and methods

      Patients with HCM who underwent 3.0-T CMR between January 2015 and January 2020 were prospectively enrolled and classified into low- and high-risk groups according to the AHA/ACC risk stratification guideline for 2020. The LGE entropy was automatically estimated using a generic Python package algorithm. On CMR imaging, the LGE mass% was determined using the CVI 42 software. Endpoint events included sudden cardiac death (SCD), hospital readmission owing to heart failure, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment for ventricular arrhythmias.

      Results

      A total of 109 HCM participants (70 males) were included. During the follow-up (23 ± 7 months), the patients in the high-risk group had higher LGE entropy (p < 0.001) and LGE mass% (p < 0.001) than those in the low-risk group, and patients with endpoint events had higher LGE entropy (p < 0.001) and LGE mass% (p < 0.001) than those without endpoint events. In all participants, there was a link between LGE entropy and LGE mass%, according to the Spearman rank correlation analysis (p < 0.001; r = 0.667). In ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of LGE entropy was 0.893 (95% CI, 0.794–0.993; P<0.001), AUC of LGE mass% was 0.826 (95% CI, 0.737–0.914; P<0.001), AUC of LVEF was 0.610 (95% CI, 0.473–0.748; P = 0.117) and AUC of 2020 AHA/ACC guideline for risk stratification was 0.716 (95% CI, 0.617–0.815; P = 0.002). According to Kaplan-Meier curves, HCM with a higher LGE entropy (≥cutoff value (<5.873) or ≥ thied tertile (5.540)) were more likely to experience the endpoint events. Following adjustment for the 2020 AHA/ACC guideline for risk categorization, LGE mass%, or decreased LVEF, Cox analysis showed that LGE entropy was independently linked with endpoint events.

      Conclusions

      The variability and extent of LGE pictures can be reflected by LGE entropy, which is a reliable, usable, and repeatable metric for risk classification in HCM. It is a prognostic indicator of endpoint events that is independent of other risk indicators.

      Keywords

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